Friday, May 22, 2020

Metafiction Poking Fun at the Conventions of Fiction

Novels and stories that examine, experiment with, or poke fun at the conventions of fiction itself can all be classified as metafiction.   The term metafiction literally means beyond fiction or over fiction, indicating that the author or narrator stands beyond or over the fictional text and judges it or observes it in a highly self-conscious way.   Its important to note that unlike literary criticism or analysis, metafiction is itself fictional. Simply commenting on a work of fiction doesnt make that work metafiction. Confused? Heres a good example to better understand the distinction. Jean Rhys and the Madwoman in the Attic The 1847 novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte is widely considered a classic of Western literature, which was quite radical in its day. The novels titular woman struggles through extreme hardships and finally finds true love with her boss, Edward Rochester. On the day of their wedding, she discovers hes already married, to a mentally unstable woman he keeps locked in the attic of the house where he and Jane live. Many critics have written about Brontes madwoman in the attic device, including examining whether it fits into feminist literature and what the woman may or may not represent. But the 1966 novel Wide Sargasso Sea retells the story from the point of view of the madwoman. How did she get in that attic? What happened between her and Rochester? Was she always mentally ill? Even though  the story itself is fiction, Wide Sargasso Sea is a commentary on Jane Eyre and the fictional characters in that novel (and to some extent, on Bronte herself).   Wide Sargasso Sea, then, is an example of metafiction, while the non-fictional literary criticisms of Jane Eyre are not.   Additional Examples of Metafiction Metafiction is not restricted to modern literature. Chaucers Canterbury Tales, written in the 15th century, and Don Quixote, by Miguel de Cervantes, written a century later, are both considered classics of the genre.  Chaucers work tells the story of a group of pilgrims headed to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket who are telling their own stories as part of a contest to win a free meal. And Don Quixote is the tale of the man of La Mancha who tilts at windmills in order to reestablish the traditions of knighthood.   And even older works such as Homers The Odyssey and the medieval English epic Beowulf contain reflections on storytelling, characterization, and inspiration.   Metafiction and Satire Another prominent type of metafiction is literary parody or satire. Though such works dont always involve self-conscious narration, they are still classified as metafiction because they call attention to popular writing techniques and genres. Among the most widely-read examples of this kind of metafiction are Jane Austens Northanger Abbey, which holds the Gothic novel up to lighthearted mockery; and James Joyces Ulysses, which reconstructs and lampoons writing styles from throughout the history of the English language. The classic of the genre is Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels, which parodies contemporary politicians (though remarkably many of Swifts references are so well-disguised that their true meanings are lost to history). Varieties of Metafiction   In the postmodern era, whimsical retellings of earlier fictional stories have also become extremely popular. A few of the most prominent of these are John Barths Chimera, John Gardners Grendel and Donald Barthelmes Snow White. In addition, some of the best-known metafictions combine an extreme consciousness of fictional technique with experiments in other forms of writing. James Joyces Ulysses, for example, is formatted partially as a closet drama, while Vladimir Nabokovs novel Pale Fire is partially a confessional narrative, partially a long poem and partially a series of scholarly footnotes.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Placebo Effect Is A Phenomenon Of Human Health...

The placebo effect is a phenomenon of human health improvement due to the fact that one believes in the effectiveness of certain effects, which in fact are neutral. The degree of this effect depends on the degree of human suggestibility and external circumstances of suggestion. This is therapeutic inculcation. It does not require any special skills, because criticality of consciousness can get overcome by binding instilled information to the actual object, tablet or injection. The placebo effect is a combination of a natural course of a disease, effects which arise in the diagnosis, monitoring and nonspecific medical interventions (Goldacre, 2008). The problem is that it is not known what specific effect self-hypnosis has in conjunction with medication. Also it is impossible to study of the natural history of disease without surgery, as it is absolutely unethical. Development of approaches itself is able to separate the placebo effect from pharmacologic action of any drug; that is a problem too because it is complicated. In 1785 the term placebo entered the medical lexicon and was applied to treatments that were known to be ineffective physiochemically but satisfied the patient’s desire to be treated (Wampold, 2016). The strongest factor of placebo effects is the belief of doctors and staff in medicine effect. Many experiments had been conducted, have which demonstrated a placebo effect. One of them was a textbook case for the study of effectiveness of reserpine’sShow MoreRelatedThe History Of The Placebo3353 Words   |  14 PagesThe history of the placebo The placebo, though unknown at the time, has been a fundamental part of medicine since antiquity. Simply put by Shapiro and Shapiro (who are considered influential writers in placebo research), â€Å"the history of the placebo is the history of medical practice itself, until modern times†. (Shapiro Shapiro, 1997) In their book, ‘The Powerful Placebo: From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician’, there is an extensive list of ancient medicine medicaments and procedures all ofRead MoreThe Problem Of Depression And Its Effects On The United States, Australia And The Uk Essay2283 Words   |  10 PagesDepression is a well-known mental health issue impacting a significant share of the Western population. This particular illness has become a contagious phenomenon, eliciting stigmatisation towards anyone displaying depressive behaviour. Thus, the subject is whether individuals are unknowingly, due to their cultural milieu, confusing and labelling normal notions of sadness with depression. This particular ideology can be concluded through examining the effect of the placebo in juxtaposition to anti-depressantsRead MoreEssay about Alternative Medicine4247 Words   |  17 Pagesconventional medical doctors. Alternative medicines seemingly have always existed, changing and conforming to the current climate of society. There seems to be an almost endless number of alternative medicines, each with their own method of gaining perfect health. Often people who are dissatisfied with conventional medicine turn to alternative medicine for their medical needs. Many similarities link the diverse extremities of alternative medicine. These links define alternative medicine, but also help explainRead MoreAn Analysis Of An Ethical Dilemma Using The Doing Ethics Technique Essay2122 Words   |  9 Pagesshould be removed from the criminal justice system and regulated like alcohol and tobacco. What’s going on? The drug war is responsible for hundreds of billions of wasted taxes dollars and misallocated government spending, as well as devastating human costs that far outweigh the damage caused by drugs alone. The United States’ unrivaled incarceration rate is a constant financial drain, causing an immeasurable loss in workforce productivity, and puts a strain on scant legal and law enforcement resourcesRead MoreCaffeine is Not as Addictive as Scheduled Narcotics Essay1982 Words   |  8 Pagesis not as addictive as some claim when discussing the chemical effects and its addictive nature. Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, is a white stimulant drug in the xanthine alkaloid family. It has a crystalline structure and is bitter in taste. It occurs naturally in the seeds, leaves and fruits of some plants. Caffeine’s natural purpose is to act as a pesticide; however, caffeinated products were first consumed by humans as long ago as 3000 BC (Evans 2). The most common form ofRead MorePsychedelic Drugs and Their Influence on Creativity and Spirituality2735 Words   |  11 Pagesand spirituality was conducted by Michael Lyvers and Molly Meester in the article, â€Å"Illicit use of LSD† They knew that LSD and Psilocybin had a history in helping people experience religious, or spiritual revelations, and wanted to examine this phenomenon (Lyvers, Meester 410). To do so, Lyvers conducted a survey amongst 337 drug users. The results were related to Lerners and Moros results. Michael Lyvers found that over a quarter of the people who responded used psychedelic drugs in hopes ofRead MorePsych Exam Chapter 1216262 Words   |  66 Pagescontagion effect D) stress; stressor Page 1 5. The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors is called: A) social psychology. B) biological psychology. C) health psychology. D) psychoneuroimmunology. 6. Dr. Gordon uses the biopsychosocial model to guide her research into how psychological factors influence health, illness, and treatment. Dr. Gordon is most likely a: A) health psychologistRead MoreModern Icu Management And Its Effects On The Treatment Rate Of Ards2073 Words   |  9 Pagesrecruitment maneuvers and salvage therapies mortality rates of ARDS still disappointing. Up to date no pharmacological intervention that proven to be beneficial and if present it serves subgroups of ARDS patients depending on the etiology and patient’s health status. But hopes still exist and researches still going to find safe and effective treatment for ARDS patients and era nowadays is directed toward multimodal approaches toward different pathologic targets. Also early intervention for cases of ARDSRead MoreStress in the 21st Century Essay2392 Words   |  10 Pagesdo, too much to worry about – was not part of the vocabulary some fifty years ago. In the 1930s the Hungarian sc ientist Hans Selye, the godfather of stress research, took an engineering concept and applied it to humans 1. Stress in general refers to force exerted on a system. In human terms however it would more correctly refer to circumstances that either threaten or are perceived to be threatening to a person’s wellbeing and consequently be taxing on their ability to cope with these circumstancesRead MoreEssay on The Tragedy of Steroids3630 Words   |  15 Pages   Ã‚   Steroids that are used by athletes are the artificial form of testosterone, a human hormone released by the body to stimulate and maintain the male sexual organs. Testosterone is called a male hormone since it is produced in men in large quantities compared to the quantity produced in women (Mishra, 1-2). Hormones that are produced by the testes and the adrenal gland in men and ovaries and adrenal gland in women contains certain kind of fat called steroids, natural ones, which means solid

The Placebo Effect Is A Phenomenon Of Human Health...

The placebo effect is a phenomenon of human health improvement due to the fact that one believes in the effectiveness of certain effects, which in fact are neutral. The degree of this effect depends on the degree of human suggestibility and external circumstances of suggestion. This is therapeutic inculcation. It does not require any special skills, because criticality of consciousness can get overcome by binding instilled information to the actual object, tablet or injection. The placebo effect is a combination of a natural course of a disease, effects which arise in the diagnosis, monitoring and nonspecific medical interventions (Goldacre, 2008). The problem is that it is not known what specific effect self-hypnosis has in conjunction with medication. Also it is impossible to study of the natural history of disease without surgery, as it is absolutely unethical. Development of approaches itself is able to separate the placebo effect from pharmacologic action of any drug; that is a problem too because it is complicated. In 1785 the term placebo entered the medical lexicon and was applied to treatments that were known to be ineffective physiochemically but satisfied the patient’s desire to be treated (Wampold, 2016). The strongest factor of placebo effects is the belief of doctors and staff in medicine effect. Many experiments had been conducted, have which demonstrated a placebo effect. One of them was a textbook case for the study of effectiveness of reserpine’sShow MoreRelatedThe History Of The Placebo3353 Words   |  14 PagesThe history of the placebo The placebo, though unknown at the time, has been a fundamental part of medicine since antiquity. Simply put by Shapiro and Shapiro (who are considered influential writers in placebo research), â€Å"the history of the placebo is the history of medical practice itself, until modern times†. (Shapiro Shapiro, 1997) In their book, ‘The Powerful Placebo: From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician’, there is an extensive list of ancient medicine medicaments and procedures all ofRead MoreThe Problem Of Depression And Its Effects On The United States, Australia And The Uk Essay2283 Words   |  10 PagesDepression is a well-known mental health issue impacting a significant share of the Western population. This particular illness has become a contagious phenomenon, eliciting stigmatisation towards anyone displaying depressive behaviour. Thus, the subject is whether individuals are unknowingly, due to their cultural milieu, confusing and labelling normal notions of sadness with depression. This particular ideology can be concluded through examining the effect of the placebo in juxtaposition to anti-depressantsRead MoreEssay about Alternative Medicine4247 Words   |  17 Pagesconventional medical doctors. Alternative medicines seemingly have always existed, changing and conforming to the current climate of society. There seems to be an almost endless number of alternative medicines, each with their own method of gaining perfect health. Often people who are dissatisfied with conventional medicine turn to alternative medicine for their medical needs. Many similarities link the diverse extremities of alternative medicine. These links define alternative medicine, but also help explainRead MoreAn Analysis Of An Ethical Dilemma Using The Doing Ethics Technique Essay2122 Words   |  9 Pagesshould be removed from the criminal justice system and regulated like alcohol and tobacco. What’s going on? The drug war is responsible for hundreds of billions of wasted taxes dollars and misallocated government spending, as well as devastating human costs that far outweigh the damage caused by drugs alone. The United States’ unrivaled incarceration rate is a constant financial drain, causing an immeasurable loss in workforce productivity, and puts a strain on scant legal and law enforcement resourcesRead MoreCaffeine is Not as Addictive as Scheduled Narcotics Essay1982 Words   |  8 Pagesis not as addictive as some claim when discussing the chemical effects and its addictive nature. Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, is a white stimulant drug in the xanthine alkaloid family. It has a crystalline structure and is bitter in taste. It occurs naturally in the seeds, leaves and fruits of some plants. Caffeine’s natural purpose is to act as a pesticide; however, caffeinated products were first consumed by humans as long ago as 3000 BC (Evans 2). The most common form ofRead MorePsychedelic Drugs and Their Influence on Creativity and Spirituality2735 Words   |  11 Pagesand spirituality was conducted by Michael Lyvers and Molly Meester in the article, â€Å"Illicit use of LSD† They knew that LSD and Psilocybin had a history in helping people experience religious, or spiritual revelations, and wanted to examine this phenomenon (Lyvers, Meester 410). To do so, Lyvers conducted a survey amongst 337 drug users. The results were related to Lerners and Moros results. Michael Lyvers found that over a quarter of the people who responded used psychedelic drugs in hopes ofRead MorePsych Exam Chapter 1216262 Words   |  66 Pagescontagion effect D) stress; stressor Page 1 5. The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors is called: A) social psychology. B) biological psychology. C) health psychology. D) psychoneuroimmunology. 6. Dr. Gordon uses the biopsychosocial model to guide her research into how psychological factors influence health, illness, and treatment. Dr. Gordon is most likely a: A) health psychologistRead MoreModern Icu Management And Its Effects On The Treatment Rate Of Ards2073 Words   |  9 Pagesrecruitment maneuvers and salvage therapies mortality rates of ARDS still disappointing. Up to date no pharmacological intervention that proven to be beneficial and if present it serves subgroups of ARDS patients depending on the etiology and patient’s health status. But hopes still exist and researches still going to find safe and effective treatment for ARDS patients and era nowadays is directed toward multimodal approaches toward different pathologic targets. Also early intervention for cases of ARDSRead MoreStress in the 21st Century Essay2392 Words   |  10 Pagesdo, too much to worry about – was not part of the vocabulary some fifty years ago. In the 1930s the Hungarian sc ientist Hans Selye, the godfather of stress research, took an engineering concept and applied it to humans 1. Stress in general refers to force exerted on a system. In human terms however it would more correctly refer to circumstances that either threaten or are perceived to be threatening to a person’s wellbeing and consequently be taxing on their ability to cope with these circumstancesRead MoreEssay on The Tragedy of Steroids3630 Words   |  15 Pages   Ã‚   Steroids that are used by athletes are the artificial form of testosterone, a human hormone released by the body to stimulate and maintain the male sexual organs. Testosterone is called a male hormone since it is produced in men in large quantities compared to the quantity produced in women (Mishra, 1-2). Hormones that are produced by the testes and the adrenal gland in men and ovaries and adrenal gland in women contains certain kind of fat called steroids, natural ones, which means solid

The Placebo Effect Is A Phenomenon Of Human Health...

The placebo effect is a phenomenon of human health improvement due to the fact that one believes in the effectiveness of certain effects, which in fact are neutral. The degree of this effect depends on the degree of human suggestibility and external circumstances of suggestion. This is therapeutic inculcation. It does not require any special skills, because criticality of consciousness can get overcome by binding instilled information to the actual object, tablet or injection. The placebo effect is a combination of a natural course of a disease, effects which arise in the diagnosis, monitoring and nonspecific medical interventions (Goldacre, 2008). The problem is that it is not known what specific effect self-hypnosis has in conjunction with medication. Also it is impossible to study of the natural history of disease without surgery, as it is absolutely unethical. Development of approaches itself is able to separate the placebo effect from pharmacologic action of any drug; that is a problem too because it is complicated. In 1785 the term placebo entered the medical lexicon and was applied to treatments that were known to be ineffective physiochemically but satisfied the patient’s desire to be treated (Wampold, 2016). The strongest factor of placebo effects is the belief of doctors and staff in medicine effect. Many experiments had been conducted, have which demonstrated a placebo effect. One of them was a textbook case for the study of effectiveness of reserpine’sShow MoreRelatedThe History Of The Placebo3353 Words   |  14 PagesThe history of the placebo The placebo, though unknown at the time, has been a fundamental part of medicine since antiquity. Simply put by Shapiro and Shapiro (who are considered influential writers in placebo research), â€Å"the history of the placebo is the history of medical practice itself, until modern times†. (Shapiro Shapiro, 1997) In their book, ‘The Powerful Placebo: From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician’, there is an extensive list of ancient medicine medicaments and procedures all ofRead MoreThe Problem Of Depression And Its Effects On The United States, Australia And The Uk Essay2283 Words   |  10 PagesDepression is a well-known mental health issue impacting a significant share of the Western population. This particular illness has become a contagious phenomenon, eliciting stigmatisation towards anyone displaying depressive behaviour. Thus, the subject is whether individuals are unknowingly, due to their cultural milieu, confusing and labelling normal notions of sadness with depression. This particular ideology can be concluded through examining the effect of the placebo in juxtaposition to anti-depressantsRead MoreEssay about Alternative Medicine4247 Words   |  17 Pagesconventional medical doctors. Alternative medicines seemingly have always existed, changing and conforming to the current climate of society. There seems to be an almost endless number of alternative medicines, each with their own method of gaining perfect health. Often people who are dissatisfied with conventional medicine turn to alternative medicine for their medical needs. Many similarities link the diverse extremities of alternative medicine. These links define alternative medicine, but also help explainRead MoreAn Analysis Of An Ethical Dilemma Using The Doing Ethics Technique Essay2122 Words   |  9 Pagesshould be removed from the criminal justice system and regulated like alcohol and tobacco. What’s going on? The drug war is responsible for hundreds of billions of wasted taxes dollars and misallocated government spending, as well as devastating human costs that far outweigh the damage caused by drugs alone. The United States’ unrivaled incarceration rate is a constant financial drain, causing an immeasurable loss in workforce productivity, and puts a strain on scant legal and law enforcement resourcesRead MoreCaffeine is Not as Addictive as Scheduled Narcotics Essay1982 Words   |  8 Pagesis not as addictive as some claim when discussing the chemical effects and its addictive nature. Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, is a white stimulant drug in the xanthine alkaloid family. It has a crystalline structure and is bitter in taste. It occurs naturally in the seeds, leaves and fruits of some plants. Caffeine’s natural purpose is to act as a pesticide; however, caffeinated products were first consumed by humans as long ago as 3000 BC (Evans 2). The most common form ofRead MorePsychedelic Drugs and Their Influence on Creativity and Spirituality2735 Words   |  11 Pagesand spirituality was conducted by Michael Lyvers and Molly Meester in the article, â€Å"Illicit use of LSD† They knew that LSD and Psilocybin had a history in helping people experience religious, or spiritual revelations, and wanted to examine this phenomenon (Lyvers, Meester 410). To do so, Lyvers conducted a survey amongst 337 drug users. The results were related to Lerners and Moros results. Michael Lyvers found that over a quarter of the people who responded used psychedelic drugs in hopes ofRead MorePsych Exam Chapter 1216262 Words   |  66 Pagescontagion effect D) stress; stressor Page 1 5. The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors is called: A) social psychology. B) biological psychology. C) health psychology. D) psychoneuroimmunology. 6. Dr. Gordon uses the biopsychosocial model to guide her research into how psychological factors influence health, illness, and treatment. Dr. Gordon is most likely a: A) health psychologistRead MoreModern Icu Management And Its Effects On The Treatment Rate Of Ards2073 Words   |  9 Pagesrecruitment maneuvers and salvage therapies mortality rates of ARDS still disappointing. Up to date no pharmacological intervention that proven to be beneficial and if present it serves subgroups of ARDS patients depending on the etiology and patient’s health status. But hopes still exist and researches still going to find safe and effective treatment for ARDS patients and era nowadays is directed toward multimodal approaches toward different pathologic targets. Also early intervention for cases of ARDSRead MoreStress in the 21st Century Essay2392 Words   |  10 Pagesdo, too much to worry about – was not part of the vocabulary some fifty years ago. In the 1930s the Hungarian sc ientist Hans Selye, the godfather of stress research, took an engineering concept and applied it to humans 1. Stress in general refers to force exerted on a system. In human terms however it would more correctly refer to circumstances that either threaten or are perceived to be threatening to a person’s wellbeing and consequently be taxing on their ability to cope with these circumstancesRead MoreEssay on The Tragedy of Steroids3630 Words   |  15 Pages   Ã‚   Steroids that are used by athletes are the artificial form of testosterone, a human hormone released by the body to stimulate and maintain the male sexual organs. Testosterone is called a male hormone since it is produced in men in large quantities compared to the quantity produced in women (Mishra, 1-2). Hormones that are produced by the testes and the adrenal gland in men and ovaries and adrenal gland in women contains certain kind of fat called steroids, natural ones, which means solid

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

People, Organisation and Management Free Essays

string(51) " encourages workers empowerment and participation\." | |Case Study: | |The Comparative analysis of LawrieTech. com and Coca-Cola | |Company | | Contents Introduction 3 Question 4 Teamwork and Teamworking 5 Organisational Design and Structure 9 Organisational Culture 14 Conclusion 17 Reference 18 Introduction LawrieTech. com is one of the software engineering companies in Scotland, which is developing and supplying software system for controlling electricity supply. We will write a custom essay sample on People, Organisation and Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now LawrieTech. om has 240 employees who service clients in 13 countries, which are include US, France and India. Coca-cola Company is the largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups in the world. Finished beverage products bearing their trademarks, sold in the US since 1886, are now sold in more than 200 countries. Question Read the two organizational case studies and provide a comparative analysis of them in written essay format. In particular the areas of comparison should cover the main topics as below: 1. Teamwork and Teamworking 2. Organizational Design and Structure 3. Organizational Culture 1. Teamwork and Teamworking Team is a combination of people within an organisation with skills, who are working together to achieve desired goal. Teamwork is the activity of working well together as a team with a collective of individual skills, talents and effects. There are four types of teams have been identified in LawrieTech. com and Coca-Cola Company. One of the team that had been identified is self-managed team, which also known as autonomous team. Team is empowered to make decision about planning and scheduling of work, allocating tasks, controlling quality of work and evaluating performance which is essential to manage them on daily basis. Both LawrieTech. com and Coca-Cola Company exist in self-managed team. Staffs of LawrieTech. com are â€Å"expected to liaise directly with clients and have a mandate to do what it takes to find solutions to their clients’ problems†. LawrieTech. com has to ensure members of teams are in theâ€Å"†¦right mix of skills and capabilities in order to meet the very exacting demands of clients†. According to McClelland’s acquired needs of power theory, members will have a mandate to control other persons, to influence their behaviour, and to be responsible for other people to fulfill their needs and self-satisfaction. Hence, â€Å"staff turnover is minimal and every year LawrieTech. com is inundated with the CVs of eager young graduates†. Coca-Cola Company is a large company which has â€Å"†¦axed 6,000 employees†. Coca-Cola will be an autonomous team because they are given authority to re-design structure and make decisions that adapt to the country’s culture and needs. Coca-Cola produces over 300 brands worldwide† and â€Å"the bottling and distribution system is also adapted to local needs†. Besides, â€Å"they have restructured with a management team coordinates a new, nimble, and entrepreneurial network†. In addition, Coca-Cola â€Å"†¦. has positioned itself for growth by moving key decision making closer to lo cal market†. Virtual team is one of the team which had identified from both companies, where teams are using computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. They can share information and ideas, make decisions, and complete tasks by using communication links. They can include members from the same company or link an organization’s members with the employees from other organization like suppliers and joint partners. (Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) LawrieTech. com has â€Å"set up a ‘Knowledge Transfer’ on the intranet to share and discuss ideas†. â€Å"Staffs are encouraged to communicate with other teams members†. Fully used of this network connection to let staffs to exchange information and ideas to each other to improve the resources of problem solving. Coca-Cola Company has existed on virtual team as it is â€Å"†¦fostering deeper connections to consumers† with their organization website. Through the network connection Coca-Cola â€Å"†¦ has been very sensitive to local market conditions†, and also â€Å"†¦recognizing the importance of international sales†. They are using the network connection to control and communicate with the other teams who are located in other countries around the world. Besides, Cross-functional team is the members come from different functional units and other part of organization with expectation of sharing information and ideas to solve organization’s problem. This team often functions as self-directed teams responding to broad, but no specific directives. Decision-making within a team may depend on consensus, but often is led by a manager or team leader. LawrieTech. com exists on cross-functional teams; however, Coca-Cola Company does not exist. LawrieTech. com’s employees are â€Å"†¦organized into flexible teams†. â€Å"Each team has the right mix of skills and apabilities† to fulfill clients’ needs to achieve their intention. Members are â€Å"†¦expected to liaise directly with clients and have a mandate to do what it takes to find solutions to their clients’ problems† and â€Å"†¦meet the very exacting the demand of clients†. Both LawrieTech. com and Coca-Cola have existe d on employee involvement team, where groups of employees who meet outside their regular assignment to uncover, apply expertise to improve workplace matter. This team often formed a quality circle where they will meet about once a week to discuss their work, identify problems, and present possible solutions to management. Michael P. Dumler Steven J. Skinner 2008) LawrieTech. com has organized â€Å"regular staff social events and outings which all enjoy†. Also, â€Å"although they have job titles, no member of staff has a specific job description suggesting that anything is possible†. They will discuss and share ideas together to improve their problem solving skill capabilities to fulfill their clients’ needs. Coca-Cola Company has existed on this team as well. â€Å"The larger the company is, the harder it is to continue to grow at a steady pace†. Therefore, â€Å"products are developed to meet the varied taste preferences of consumers†, and â€Å"Coca-Cola produces over 300 brands worldwide in addition to its flagship brands†. 2. Organizational Design and Structure Organizational Design It can be defined as the creation of roles, processes and formal reporting relationship in an organization. One can distinguish between two phases in an organization design process, which are organic design and mechanistic design. Organic organization operates with minimum bureaucratic features and with a culture that encourages workers empowerment and participation. You read "People, Organisation and Management" in category "Management" However, mechanistic organization is an ideal organization form, and operated with bureaucratic features, like clear cut labour divisions, strict hierarchy and authority, formal rules and promotion based on competency. Organic organization has a flat structure with maximum two levels of management, which called decentralized authority. Supervisors tend to have a more personal relationship with employees. However, mechanistic organization is a centralized authority with narrow span of control, more specialist positions, and homogeneous, functional departments. (Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) The Gibson, Ivancevich, and Donnelly (1995) stated, â€Å"While the mechanistic model seeks to maximize efficiency and product, the organic model seeks to maximize satisfaction, flexibility and development† (p. 542). LawrieTech. com exists on organic design as it is a decentralized authority and there is only two levels management, which is section and team. Meanwhile, the company encourages the empowerment and participation of staffs for problems solving. It is more to be informal or personal type organization as they only have few rules in the organization. Ties are banned from the office†. Also, â€Å"†¦staffs work in flexi time† and they can â€Å"†¦approach their employer, Iain, for a chat† except in the meeting hour. There is â€Å"†¦informal and relaxed atmosphere in the office†. There are wide span of control, which only has two levels of management. LawrieTech. com is also an organization with f ull of intellectual capital, where there are collective brainpowers of workforce that can be used to create value. Therefore, all tasks are shared, â€Å"Although they have job titles, no member of staff has a specific job description suggesting that anything is possible†. Staffs are organized into flexible teams†. Thus, LawrieTech. com has many task forces and is considered as a small enterprise, because it only has â€Å"†¦employed 240 workers†. However, Coca-Cola is a mechanistic organization since it processes as a centralized authority, where there are â€Å"twenty-four division and operations presidents†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and it has more structured. Coca-Cola is a large company, where â€Å"†¦CEO, Douglas Daft axed 6,000 employees†. In addition, it has many rules and regulations as â€Å"twenty-four divisions and operations presidents report to the chief operating officers†. Coca-Cola Company has few task forces, because their shibboleth is one company, one group. Employees are organized into departments and tasks are specialised within their organizational structure, as they have â€Å"†¦ group of individuals, along with Coca-Cola employees and partners worldwide, are responsible for implementing the six strategic priorities† and they are â€Å"†¦ very sensitive to local market conditions†. The span of control is narrow, as â€Å"twenty-four divisions and operations presidents report to the chief operating officers†. Organizational Structure It is a hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim. The structure of an organization is usually set up in one of the variety of styles, dependant on their objectives and ambience. It will determine the modes in which it shall operate and will perform. (Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) There are six types of structure have been identified in both company. First of all, LawrieTech. com exists on team structure, but Coca-Cola is less exists on this structure. Team structure is defined as it greatly use permanent and temporally teams to solve problems, complete special projects, and accomplish daily tasks. It often uses cross-functional teams. For examples, LawrieTech. com’s staffs are â€Å"†¦organized into flexible teams†. â€Å"Each team has the right mix of skills and capabilities in order to meet the very exacting demands of clients†. â€Å"†¦ regular team meeting† is held where members can exchange ideas and communicate with other team members. It helps them to mix easily. Secondly, network structure has been performing within both companies. It is a central core that is linked through networks of relationships with outside contractors and suppliers of essential services. Furthermore, the company own only core components and use strategic alliances or outsourcing to provide other components. LawrieTech. com is a network organization, where it hasâ€Å"†¦set up an intranet, ‘Knowledge Transfer’, to let staffs share and discuss ideas†. â€Å"Staffs are organized into flexible teams† to complete their tasks with perfect mix of skill capabilities. Coca-Cola Company also exists on network structure as well, because employees are organized into departments with using network connection to link to each other and â€Å"†¦recognizing the importance of international sales†. Besides, divisional structures delineate team who works on the same product or process, serve similar customers, and located in the same area or geographical region. It is more common in complex organization and in avoids problems associated with functional structure. LawrieTech. com and Coca-Cola have existed on it at the same time, but LawrieTech. com only base on customer structure. For examples, LawrieTech. com’s â€Å"†¦. business strategy involves the development of high specification customer-driven programmes with intense levels of after-sales services†. Its intention, that all of a worker has skills and capabilities to fulfill their clients’ needs. Coca-Cola Company also exists on this structure, which based on customer and geographical. As an example for customer structure, â€Å"products are developed to meet the varied taste preferences of consumers†. Coca-Cola tries to adapt to local needs, where â€Å"†¦all bottlers are local companies either independently owned or only partially owned by the Coca-Cola†. There would be the functional structure in Coca-Cola, yet LawrieTech. com does not exist. Functional structure lies in putting like specialists together, which minimizes the number necessary while allowing the pooling and sharing of specialized resources across products. (Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) Coca-Cola is trying to â€Å"†¦achieve profitability through economies of scale and by capitalizing on its existing distribution†. Boundary-less organization is the eliminating of internal boundaries among subsystems and external boundaries with the external environment. It is also a combination of team and network structures with the addition of â€Å"temporariness†. (Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) Due to the identification on the above, LawrieTech. com is a boundary-less organization. As it has been exist on team structure as well as network structure. Teams are â€Å"†¦organized into flexible teams† to achieve the perfect match of skill and capabilities. They are exchanging ideas with each other through the ‘Knowledge Transfer’. Coca-Cola Company is not a boundary-less organization since team structure is less performed in it. Finally, matrix structure is a combination of functional and divisional structure for increasing the advantages and minimized the disadvantages of each used in manufacturing, service industries, professional fields, non-profit sectors and Multinational Corporation. Coca-Cola is a matrix organization as it has simultaneously existed both functional and divisional structures, but LawrieTech. com is not a matrix structure. For examples, Coca-Cola attempts to â€Å"†¦achieve profitability through economies of scale† and also develop product to â€Å"†¦meet the varied taste preferences of consumers†. Besides, they aim to â€Å"†¦adapt to local needs† by â€Å"the bottling and distribution systems†. 3. Organizational Culture Organization culture can be defined as a system of shared meaning by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. (Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) At first, LawrieTech. com has been present in people orientation. People orientation is the degree of value and respect for people. â€Å"LawrieTech. om seeks to employ the best graduates available who can bring the skills and attitudes that are consistent with the company’s business philosophy and, indeed, their philosophy on life. † LawrieTech. com concern to the staffs’ working performance in their daily tasks with joyful. Through the identification, Coca-Cola does not have people orientation. Team orientation is one of the organizational cultures in the case studies. I t is the degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individual. (Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) In LawrieTech. com, â€Å"staffs are organized into flexible teams†. Each team has the right mix of skills and capabilities in order to meet the very exacting demands of clients†. Members are â€Å"†¦liaising directly with clients† and to fulfill the clients’ needs with taking decision themselves. â€Å"†¦Regular team meeting† set up to improve the relationship between each member of other teams. Coca-Cola has also less team orientation, as it is less performed as team structure. According to case studies, innovation and risk taking is performed in both companies. It is the degree of the company willing to experiment, take risks, and encourage innovation. In LawrieTech. com â€Å"†¦staffs are able to express themselves† and be creative in their work. Also, they have a mandate to do what it takes to get problems solving to serve to their aim. Coca-Cola Company is a manufacturer company, it needs to have more innovation and risk taking to achieve its desired goal. â€Å"Products are developed to meet the varied taste preferences of consumers† and they have produced â€Å"†¦over 300 brands worldwide in addition to its flagship brands†. Coca-Cola Company introduces aggressiveness in its company. Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2005) stated aggressiveness is â€Å"the degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing† (p. 512) Coca-Cola â€Å"growth in sales has been fueled both internally and through acquisitions and licensing agreements†. Also, it has developed products â€Å"†¦to meet the varied taste preferences of consumers†. Nevertheless, LawrieTech. com is not an aggressiveness company. Coca-Cola has introduced outcome orientation, but LawrieTech. com does not exist. Outcome orientation is the degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes. Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge 2005) Coca-Cola is an organization which achieving their aim without focusing on undertaking the ways. It is more focus on their image and profit, so its top management â€Å"†¦axed 6,000 employees† to restructure their organization and also reduce their unnecessary cost fo r maintaining its financial. Likewise, Coca-Cola is â€Å"†¦recognizing the importance of international sales, has been very sensitive to local market conditions† for their profit and gain. Conclusion Coca-Cola Company and LawrieTech. om are not being able to compare with each other, because both are not in the same line organization. Coca-Cola Company is a manufacture line company, but LawrieTech. com is a customer line organization. Employees of LawrieTech. com are working together as a team and fulfilled with needs of power for self-satisfaction and confidence. However, employees of Coca-Cola Company should be more disciplined as there are full of rules and regulations, and they need to follow instructions from top management to complete their daily tasks. Reference Books 1. Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge (2005) Organizational Behaviour. 12th Edition. United States of America: Person Prentice Hall. P. 300-303, P. 478-485, P. 490-494. 2. Gibson, J. L. , Ivancevich, J. M. , Donnelly, J. H. , Jr. (1995) Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes. 8th Edition. Boston, MA: Irwin. P. 542. 3. Michael P. Dumler and Steven J. Skinner (2008) A Primer for Management. 2nd Edition. United States of America: Thomson South-Western. P. 168. How to cite People, Organisation and Management, Essays

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Name _______________________ Period _____ Essays - Case Law

Name: _______________________ Period: _____ A lesson on the free-speech debate Colin Kaepernick started First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. TEXAS V. JOHNSON (1989) Summary This Landmark Supreme Court Cases and the Constitution focuses on a case involving expressive conduct, and what is for many a deeply cherished symbol of Americathe U.S. flag. In a closely divided (5-4) ruling, the Supreme Court held that states could not forbid burning the U.S. flag in protest, because doing so would violate the freedom of speech protected by the First Amendment. In 1984, the Republican Party convened in Dallas, Texas for their national convention. President Ronald Reagan, seeking a second term in office, was to be officially nominated as the GOP candidate for President. Scores of individuals organized a political protest in Dallas that voiced opposition to Reagan administration policies and those of some Dallas-based corporations. Among the protesters was Gregory Lee Johnson. As the demonstrators marched through the streets, chanting their message, a fellow protestor handed Johnson an American flag that had been taken from a flagpole at one of their protest locations. Upon reaching the Dallas City Hall, Johnson doused the flag with kerosene and set it ablaze. Johnson and his fellow demonstrators circled the burning flag and shouted "America, the red, white, and blue, we spit on you." No one was hurt or threatened with injury by the act, but many who witnessed it were deeply offended. Johnson was arrested, charged, and convicted of violating a Texas law that made it a crime to desecrate a "venerable object." Texas was not the only state to have anti-flag burning laws on the books, 47 other states also criminalized flag desecration. For his crime, Johnson received a sentence of one year in prison and was ordered to pay a $2,000 fine. Johnson appealed his conviction and his case eventually went to the Supreme Court. Johnson argued that the Texas flag desecration statute violated the First Amendment, which says "Congress shall make no lawabridging the freedom of speechor the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." The state of Texas argued that it had an interest in preserving the flag as a symbol of national unity. The Court had to consider: Are there certain symbols that are so widely cherished and understood to convey certain meanings that the government can regulate their use? The Court agreed with Johnson (5-4) and struck down the Texas statute. Burning a U.S. flag in protest was expressive conduct protected by the First Amendment. "The First Amendment literally forbids the abridgment only of speech,' but we have long recognized that its protection does not end at the spoken or written word[.] If there is a bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable[.]" Though Texas v. Johnson has been upheld in subsequent Supreme Court cases, flag desecration itself remains unpopular in America. The House of Representatives has, on six different occasions, voted on a Constitutional Amendment known as the Flag Desecration Amendment, which states: "The Congress shall have power to prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States." Each time this Amendment has been introduced, it has passed the House by the required two-thirds majority. The Amendment never passed the Senate with the 67 votes needed, but it also has never received less than 63 votes in support. Discussion Questions: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper and attach to this document: Vocabulary: Define all of the bold underline words in the document. Ten words in total. Why was Gregory Johnson arrested? What was the Texas law on flag desecration? Rephrase the following statement in your own words: "The state of Texas argued that it had an interest in preserving the flag as a symbol of national unity." What were the arguments on each side? Do you agree

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Should You Take AP English Literature or AP English Language

Should You Take AP English Literature or AP English Language SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you considering taking an AP English class at some point during high school? You might have noticed that AP offers two English courses – AP English Literature and Composition and AP English Language and Composition. (Those titles are a mouthful, so we’ll just refer to them as AP Literature and AP Language in this post.) So what are some of the differences between the two classes? Is one class harder than the other? Should you take both or just choose one? In this guide, we'll explain the similarities and differences between the two courses to help you decide which option is best for you. AP Literature vs. AP Language Overview Some schools offer AP Literature and AP English Language as a sequence, with AP Language and Composition as a sophomore or junior course, and AP Literature as a junior or senior course. But some schools only offer the courses during senior year, and students have to choose between them. Or your school might not have strict requirements at all, and you might be wondering if you should take both, one, or none. First we will reveal which course is more difficult. Then we'll discuss the similarities between the two courses as well as the differences. Finally, we will ask you some guiding questions to help you decide between the two classes. Which Is Harder: AP Literature or AP Language? You’re probably wondering...out of the two AP English courses, which one is harder? Well, it turns out both AP Literature and AP Language are not super easy to pass, and quite difficult to get a 5 (the highest score) on. (For more on AP test scoring, see our post.) Both exams have low pass rates and very low 5 rates. AP Literature has a pass rate of about 52%, while AP Language's pass rate is about 55%. This makes them the making them the 7th and 10th lowest-passed AP exams in 2017(out of the 38 total exams). Their 5 rates are also low. AP Language has a 9.1% 5 rate. AP Literature has just a 6.8% 5 rate. To put that in context, on other AP exams, it’s typical for between 10% and 20% of students to earn a 5. There are a few factors that could explain why both AP English exams have low pass rates and low 5 rates. The first is the fact that they are both very popular exams. AP Language is the number one most popular AP exam – nearly 580,000 students took the test in 2017 alone! AP Literature is the third most-popular AP exam, withover400,000 exams taken in 2017. This means that both tests have a very wide pool of exam-takers, which suggests there might be more students who take the exam who are unprepared. However, the fact that their 5 rates are so low suggests that both exams are more difficult than average to do well on. Given that the difference in pass rates is so small between the two tests, it’s unlikely one AP English class is dramatically harder than the other. Which test is harder for you will depend on your strengths and weaknesses, as both AP English classes have different readings and goals. Instead, to figure out which exam is best for you, we'll compare the two classes and the content they cover. First, we will note how the classes are similar, and then we will explain what makes each AP English class unique. What’s the Same for AP Language and AP Literature? So what are the similarities between AP Literature and AP Language? We will compare both the AP tests and the classes. The Exam The exam format is very similar for both AP English classes. The first part of AP Literature has 55 multiple-choice questions, and the first part of AP Language has 52-55 multiple choice questions. On both tests section I is worth 45% of your total score. These questions mainly have you read passages and analyze them. The AP English Literature questions focus on literary devices, character, and theme while the AP English Language questions focus on rhetorical strategies and tone. However, both tests include comprehension questions and require you to be able to read complex passages quickly and understand them. The second part the exam is worth 55% and has three essay questions. This means that both exams also require very fast writing skills. You need to plan, outline, write, and edit three essays in two hours, or in about 40 minutes per essay. Both exams also require you to be able to very quickly read and analyze a text by writing an essay, since the essay questions often ask you to analyze a piece of writing. The only major difference in exam format is that the AP Language exam has a 15-minute reading period before the free-response section, while AP Literature does not. This is to give you time to prepare for the synthesis question, which is unique to the AP Language test. The synthesis question has you incorporate several different sources into a coherent argument. To sum up, the format of the two AP English exams is very similar. You can expect the AP exam for either class to be quite challenging. The Class Both AP English classes are English courses and thus will mainly consist of reading and writing assignments. In particular, both emphasize writing clear, analytical essays. This is very different than just summarizing a book or writing your own stories like you might have in done previous English classes. Since both classes are meant to teach the same skills as an introductory college English class, the emphasis is on analyzing and writing about texts, rather than just reading, summarizing, and creating your own work. However, even though the exam and class formats are quite similar, the subject matter they tackle is very different. Next we will explore which makes each AP English course unique. What Sets the Two Classes Apart? There are some key differences between AP Language and AP Literature. This means that one AP English class might be more useful for you than the other. In this section we'll explain five of the main differences between the two classes. Looking at examples of actual prompts for both classes can also help you get a sense of how they differ. For AP Language, you can readall of the recent past free-response topics here, and you canread all the recent past AP Literature free response questions here. Difference 1: AP Language Is Broader Than AP Literature The main difference between the two courses is thatAP Literature focuses mostly on analyzing literature and poetry, while AP Language has a much broader scope. APEnglishLanguage and Composition teaches you to deconstruct arguments and rhetorical strategies in mostly non-fiction works.Non-fiction is a broad term, and can include journalism, memoirs, essays, satire, comics, and even photography.In other words, you will read (and watch!) material that is likely much more far-reaching than your past English classes. For AP Lang, you will also do lots of writing, learning to maximize your argument and/or effectiveness across different forms, from persuasive essays to memoir writing. As an example, in my AP Language course,our writing assignments included persuasive essays, reports on current events, memoir writing, and keeping a nature journal,a la Henry David Thoreau inWalden. (If you don’t know who that is, you probably will after taking AP Language!) For AP Literature, the works you read will be much less broad. They will be primarily literature, although the class will also include some poetry. You'll primarily be reading novels and plays, and the texts you read will be less broad compared to what you read in AP Language. Difference 2: AP Literature Is More In-Depth Than AP Language APEnglishLiterature teaches you to read and analyze works of literature and poetry with different lenses - for example, characterization, tone, or description. In that sense,it has less breadth but more depth than AP Language. You will work to discover a work’s theme or intent via use of literary devices, as opposed to analyzing its argument or effectiveness. Your essays for AP Literature will be mainly analytical. For example, you will explain how a novel achieves a certain tone by closely analyzing quotations. In most cases, you won’t be arguing for a point or saying how good or bad something is. You will simply read literature closely and try to figure out what makes it tick. For AP Language, you typically won't be diving so deep into one source; you'll instead be making broader comparisons and arguments for a variety of texts. You won't be referring to specific quotes as often as you would in AP Lit because you're taking more of a high-level look at the texts. Difference 3: AP Language Is More Applicable for Other Subjects Than AP Literature The skills you learn in AP Language are broadly applicable to not only the humanities, but to the social sciences as well.If you’re interested in political science, sociology, or economics, the skills you learn in AP Language will be directly applicable to your college coursework. AP Language is also a good choice if you are interested in natural science or engineering, since learning to break down arguments and read non-fiction texts will likely be more helpful in your chosen field than analyzing poetry and literature. In any field, having strong writing skills is very helpful. The essays on the AP Language exam are designed to â€Å"test your skill in composition and require close reading, thoughtful rhetorical analysis, andpurposeful argumentation.† As we mentioned above,AP Language has a synthesis prompt that requires you to pull together several different sources and write a cohesive argumentative essay.The synthesis prompt is similar to the Document-Based Question you’ll find on AP history exams. For AP Literature, you'll gain writing skills useful in any field, but this class has a very specific humanities/fine arts focus.You'll be studying primarily fiction texts, including poetry and literature. You'll spend more time studying how literary pieces are composed and how literary devices are used. Even if you rarely read newspapers anymore, you might encounter them in AP Language! Difference 4: You'll Likely Do More Reading in AP Literature You'll have to do a fair amount of reading for both classes, but AP Literature is generally a more reading-intensive course. For AP Literature,you need to read several books just to prepare for the AP exam, so expect regular reading assignments.For example, my class read several novels, including very long ones likeCrime and Punishment, as well as plays, short stories, and poetry. We also had to read six full-length books the summer before the class even started. You'll also be doing reading for AP Language, but the readings will often be shorter, and many won't be full-length novels or plays. If you're worried about having enough time to complete the required reading, it's an important factor to consider when deciding between the two classes. Difference 5: The Final AP Literature Prompt Is Especially Difficult Many students find the final prompt on the AP Literature exam to be especially challenging. For the last prompt, the AP Literature test does not give you relevant quotes or summaries of the works you can write about. This means you have to be familiar with at least a few books and be able to write about them without having the books with you when you take the exam. As an example, here is the 2014 open response prompt: The prompt gives you a wide variety of books and plays that you could write about, but also allows you to analyze any work of â€Å"comparable literary merit.† (Twilight isn’t going to cut it.) But the prompt doesn’t give you any more info than the work’s title – you need to be able to supply the evidence from that particular work based on memory. Some students memorize important quotes and page numbers to be prepared for this question, but this isn't essential if you have a strong grasp of the plot, characters, tone, themes, motifs, and so on.Furthermore, to write these essays well, you need to know literary devices, like allegory and hyperbole, to name a couple, and be able to use them as evidence. In contrast, the AP Language exam provides most of the sources for you to analyze. Just one essay asks you to consider outside sources, but it doesn’t require specific books, and in fact allows you to draw from your own experience. Again, this shows that you'll have to do a lot more reading for AP Literature so that you have a wide pool of books you can potentially use for the final essay prompt. How Do You Decide Which AP English Class to Take? Both AP English classes have key similarities – like exam structure – and differences, like the type of reading you’ll do. So how will you pick which one to take? Consider each of the following factors before making your decision. What Are You Planning on Majoring In? As a general rule, AP Language has a broader focus and will be more directly applicable to your work in various college majors, while AP Literature is a great choice if you are interested in the arts or humanities. For example, if you know for sure you want to pursue engineering in college, then AP Language is probably the best choice. You’ll pick up some writing skills but not be overloaded with tons of reading – saving you time for other challenging courses in math and science. But if you know you want to study the humanities – including philosophy, history, English or World Literature – the depth of reading you’ll do in AP Literature will give you a solid base of knowledge to build on in college. But what if you have no clue what you want to study in college? Keep reading! What Do You Like To Read? AP Literature and AP Language have very different focuses and reading lists. So think about what you tend to enjoy reading! If you like the reading for a class, you are much more likely to complete it all and be interested in the assignments – meaning you’ll get a better grade. For example, if you follow the news, read lots of blogs or magazines, and enjoy non-fiction books, you’ll probably enjoy the AP Language reading. If you read fiction books for fun and enjoy writing your own stories, you might prefer AP Literature. Sure, you won’t be doing lots of creative writing, but studying what makes literature great will help you be a better writer. Who Teaches These Classes at Your School? Preferences and future major aside, your experience in the class will really depend on how it’s taught at your school and how good the teacher is. If you can, get a syllabus from both of this year’s classes. There isn’t required reading for either course, although AP Literature has many suggested authors, so teachers have a lot of freedom in designing their reading lists. You might be much more interested in one class’s reading than another, and that will help you decide. You can also ask upperclassman and your guidance counselor about the reputation and pass rate of the different classes at your school. Chances are, both AP English teachers will be pretty good, if not excellent. But if, for example, everyone raves about the AP Literature class and say that they learned a ton and loved the teacher, consider taking it even if you’re leaning towards AP Language. Never underestimate the effect of an amazing teacher! Is It Possible to Take Both AP Language and AP Literature? If you really can’t decide, see if it’s possible to take both classes. Colleges want to see that you are taking a challenging course load based on what’s available at your school. That could mean fitting in both AP English courses, but if that causes you to have to sacrifice other AP classes or an extracurricular, taking one is plenty. Again, this will also depend on your intended major. For example if you’re a future engineer, taking both AP English classes won’t vastly strengthen your college applications,while fitting in both AP Calculus and AP Physics will. But if you are interested in the humanities, it would make sense to take both. Personally, I took both AP English classes: AP Language in 10th grade, and AP Literature in 11th grade. They were both challenging, but I liked taking them in that order, since Language was broader and gave me an introduction to writing AP essays. I was able to use the skills I developed in Language to do well in Literature. For me, Literature was more challenging, mainly because I had to know a few books and plays inside and out to be ready for the free-response section of the AP test. I found both test’s multiple-choice sections equally challenging. I found the skills I built in both classes to be incredibly useful to me across a range of college classes – from economics to political science to English. Don't choose just one path! Bottom Line: AP Lang vs AP Lit Both AP English classes will improve your writing skills. Both AP English classes have challenging exams. The main difference between the two is what types of reading they focus on. Hopefully reading about the two classes gave you an idea about which one you are leaning towards. If not, make an appointment to talk to your guidance counselor to discuss which class is best for you. What’s Next? Whether you decide to take AP Literature, AP Language, or both, you might also be wondering how many AP classes total you should take in high school. See our guide to choosing the right number of AP classes. Also studying for the SAT or ACT? Learn which reading section is harder, and get tips for an 800 SAT Reading score from our full-scorer. Still deciding between the SAT or ACT? Find out for sure which you will do the best on. Also read a detailed comparison between the two tests. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: